Over the years many filling (implant) agents have been developed. However, the search is still on for the ideal facial implant material. The ideal product should have the following properties:
They are mainly used for the removal or improvement of scars caused by acne, correction of facial (wrinkle) lines, and enhancement or "filling in" of certain specific facial features such as the lips or chin.
|Implant type||Product names|
|Collagen||Zyderm™, Zyplast™, Alloderm™, CosmoDerm™, CosmoPlast™|
|Hyaluronic acid||Hylaform™, Restylane™, Captique™, Perlane™, Juvederm™, Prevelle™, Puragen™, Elevess™|
|Hydroxyapatite||Hydroxyapatite (HA), Coralline Hydroxyapatite (CH), Radiesse™|
|Silicone||Popular manufacturers include Implantech, Allied Biomedical, Advanced Bio-Technologies, Inamed Aesthetics|
|Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)||Gore-Tex™, SoftForm™|
|Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)||Artecoll™, MetaCrill™, Artefill™|
|Hydrophilic polyacrylamide||Hydrogel™, HPG™, Argiform™, Bioformacryl™, DermaLive™, Aquamid™|
Of the implant types described above, the following are injectable augmentation products:
These products provide facial augmentation with less downtime. Collagen and hyaluronic acid provide only a temporary solution as they are reabsorbed into the body over time (3 to 12 months); top-up treatments are necessary to maintain the desired correction. PMMA and hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel are recent additions of injectable augmentation products and give more long-lasting results (months to years).
All facial implants currently used have some side effects that preclude them from being the
ideal agent. Some of the side effects and complications that may occur include:
See individual implant types for specific problems.
Proper knowledge of facial anatomy, training in injection technique and supervision of new injectors will reduce the risks.